Sunday, May 24, 2020

Positive Effects of Entertainment Technology on Human...

In: Rene Jacquart (Ed.) Building the Information Society.  © IFIP, Kluwer Academic Press, 2004, pp. 51-58 51 POSITIVE EFFECTS OF ENTERTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Matthias Rauterberg Technical University Eindhoven (The Netherlands) Abstract: Worldwide the pros and cons of games and social behaviour are discussed. In Western countries the discussion is focussing on violent game and media content; in Japan on intensive game usage and the impact on the intellectual development of children. A lot is already discussed on the harmful and negative effects of entertainment technology on human behaviour, therefore we decided to focus primarily on the positive effects. Based on an online document search we could find and select†¦show more content†¦General development: Games require the use of logic, memory, problem solving and critical thinking skills, visualization and discovery [34]. Their use requires that players manipulate objects using electronic tools and develop an understanding of the game as a complex system. Play is an effective teaching strategy both inside and outside school. According to Goldstein â€Å"more than 40 studies concludes that play enhances early development by at least 33%† [36 ]. Play with games and toys are an important part of child development to acquire a variety of skills for life, such as motor-coordination, social and cognitive skills [15]. As societies become increasingly concerned about the physical and psychological well-being of children, the value of playing and learning is getting crucial [22]. Players can progress from newcomer to expert, in particular in belonging to a social system [11]. Teaching: If computer games are to become part of educational settings, it is crucial to question existing stereotypes and to ensure that the culture of games players in education conforms to neither [13]. It is teachers’ stereotypes that resist change and not people; therefore, by interrogating conceptions of these stereotypes it is possible to avoid falling into the error of believing them to be exclusive descriptors of games players [11]. Academic performance: In a research program the use of electronic communication and games with children was i nvestigated in both classroom andShow MoreRelatedWhat Impact Does Entertainment Technology Have on Child Behavior?1116 Words   |  5 Pagesproliferation of technology within entertainment has had detrimental effects on those children exposed to them, with many youngsters forgoing the more traditional pursuits in favour of digital interaction with online acquaintances or artificial intelligence. Entertainment now contains a wide variety of technologies including television (standard or interactive), music, computers, games consoles, toys and the internet, to name but a few. The aim of this study is to identify whether these technologies have anRead MoreVideo Games And Health Effect On The Human Mind And Body1641 Words   |  7 Pagespeople, specifically the media and parents have questioned the positive impact of video gaming. People believed that gaming will only encourage addiction, lead to social isolation and result in physical and psychological complications such as obesit y and developing a violent and aggressive behaviour. These difficulties could be a gateway to more serious problems such as suicide and death. However, in contrast to the detrimental effects of video gaming, others believed that it could improve coordinationRead MoreNeed N Importance of Mass Media in Our Daily Life1377 Words   |  6 Pagesinexpensive almost everywhere. We can find many kinds of information using the internet technology..It is worth remembering that there have been three important revolutions in recent history, i.e. agrarian revolution in farming, industry revolution in mass production and information revolution that provides global access. We are now in the midst of the information revolution. Due to continuing developments in media technology, we are flooded by a huge volume of non-stop information. Most of this informationRead MoreNeed N Importance of Mass Media in Our Daily Life1386 Words   |  6 Pagesinexpensive almost everywhere. We can find many kinds of information using the internet technology..It is worth remembering that there have been three important revolutions in recent history, i.e. agrarian revolution in farming, industry revolution in mass production and information revolution that provides global access. We are now in the midst of the information revolution. Due to continuing developments in media technology, we are flooded by a huge volume of non-stop information. Most of this informationRead MoreEffect of Media and Mass Communication Essay1386 Words   |  6 Pages Media is a significant force within modern culture. Culture can be defined as the norms and values of a society. In our culture, the communications media hold an influential place in disseminating information, forming attitudes, and motivating behaviour. Technological advances are increasing the role of the media and its capacity to shape public opinion. Our society depends on the news media to provide information to help us form opinions and make voting de cisions. It is clear the media has a hugeRead MoreSociology as a Perspective 1332 Words   |  6 Pagesimpact the behaviour of individuals, such as family, religion, science, politics, economy, law and education. These contribute in shaping one’s norms and values. Family is the most basic social structure that influences an individual’s upbringing. Within the family an individual establishes self identity by learning communication skills, lifestyle habits, religious beliefs, choice of sports and political views. According to Karl Marx family contributes to economic growth as it produces human labour therebyRead MoreHow New Technologies Impacted The Purchasing Habits Of The Public1534 Words   |  7 Pagesmanifest market power and influence buying decisions on a new, much larger scale. This essay will analyse in what ways new technologies have impacted the purchasing habits of the public, their effects on the consumer decision-making process and how, if at all, market ers can utilise these new technologies in their favour and influence consumers’ preferences. Purchasing behaviour varies depending on factors such as time available for deliberation and decision-making, the involvement in the purchaseRead MoreVideo Game Effects On Children1229 Words   |  5 PagesVideo Game Effects on Children The effects of video games on children has been widely debated on multiple occasions. Most homes contain at least one video game system. There are plenty of companies involved in the rapidly growing gaming industry. These companies ensure a wide variety of types and genres of video games exist in the world today, and most people, including adults, will have very little difficulty identifying precisely which game is their favourite. The fact of the matterRead MoreThe Influences Of Mass Media On Society864 Words   |  4 Pagesnot as popular as present day, for some homes, it was a source of entertainment and information From 1921 to 1924, there were only 500 licensed media radio stations. By the 1940s (1930-1940), at least 83% of homes possessed a radio(Smith, 2014,paragraph 23, Radio: The Internet of the 1930 s). The negativity of certain broadcasting posed as a concern, even in the early years. As Smith explained, But the new technology also raised anxieties. Observers worried about the propriety andRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On Our Society Today Essay1502 Words   |  7 Pagesmedia in the world today. With technologies becoming better and better after time, the number of new internet users increase daily. Many societies have been formed such as the Internet Society to foster growth and the access of internet through the globe by bringing information and partnerships to people and communities. With every country thriving to increase internet penetration, the internet has a great impact in our daily lives, affecting us in both a positive and negative way. Some users may

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution Free Essays

The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution The Stamp Act was essentially a tax on all printed materials and commercial documents. This also included newspapers, pamphlets, bills, legal documents, licenses, almanacs, dice, and playing cards. These materials had to carry a special stamp which needed to be purchased. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now This tax, along with the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act, and the Quebec Act, made up the Intolerable Acts. The Stamp Act was created to help cover the 10,000 soldiers left in the colonies after the French and Indian War. The war had put Britain over ? 130,000,000 by 1764. It was created by George Grenville and went into effect on November 1, 1765. This was the first direct tax imposed on the colonists by the British. When news of the Stamp Act reached the colonies in May, the Virginia House of Burgesses stayed in session to pass a set of resolutions protesting the tax. More newspapers throughout the colonies circulated Virginia’s Resolves. As it made its way around the colonies, resolutions grew more numerous and radical. Massachusetts’s legislature circulated a call for a unified response. In October 1765, 27 delegates from 9 colonies met in New York City. This group came to be known as the Stamp Act Congress. On October 19th, the congress adopted 14 resolutions. These resolutions were then forwarded on to the King and the Parliament. It was repealed on March 18, 1766. This was the same day the Declaratory Act passes. This act gave Parliament the right to make any law for the colonies. Unrest in the colonies died down after the Stamp Act was repealed, but the committees that it had created remained. These committees included the Committees of Correpondence, Sons of Liberty, and the boycotts were refined and used later to protest future British taxes. These acts along with the issue of taxation without representation led to the American Revolution. How to cite The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Systematic Sythnthetic Phonics free essay sample

The National Literacy Strategy has been in place since 1998 and since this time there has been a significant increase in the teaching of phonics in literacy, and there have been substantial changes and improvements in the teaching. Although the teaching of phonics has been increased and an improvement has been seen, children were still failing to meet the standards expected in literacy, which means teachers needed to review and improve the way they teach phonics in the literacy hour. Here in the UK we live in a print dependent society, so it is important that, as far as is possible, all children become effective readers and writers, people who are both functionally literate and who enjoy engaging with print. In March 2006 the Secretary of State for Education for England, commissioned the Rose Report which recommended that synthetic phonics must be included in the early reading instruction (Styles. M, 2007). The Rose review provided a simple model of reading which basically states that skilled reading requires two processes: the reader recognises and understands the words on the page (word recognition and decoding) and the development of language comprehension ( that is written texts as well as spoken language are understood and interpreted). Both processes are required, but one without the other is not sufficient (Ofsted, Getting them reading early, 2011) There has always been a debate regarding the teaching of reading, relating to published schemes or a whole language approach, and it had been said that â€Å"understanding the particular demands made by a language like English is crucial for the successful early teaching of reading in English†. Joyce Morris (1984) believed that synthetic phonics was the only way to teach reading and described it as teaching students to convert letters into sounds to form recognisable words, compared to Analytic phonics which introduces children to whole words before teaching them to analyse these into their component part (Styles. M, 2007). Personal teaching practice has seen Jolly Phonics, Letters and Sounds and more recently Read, Write Inc (appendix 1) being used to teach and learn English, throughout Foundation stage and Key Stage 1. These schemes work alongside the principle that children will learn a new sound and then be able to blend sounds together to form a word, they are not literally reciting a word from memory. Whichever programme is delivered, it has been emphasised how importance it is to remain consistent, systematic and delivery being regular, else there is a high chance of the programme being floundered, which is referred to as â€Å"fidelity to the programme†. Through own teaching practice it has been seen where a child memorises words on sight within a book, or literally remembers the story from having it read to them, and then when they read it to a teacher they are believed to have read it fluently so are just given the next book, and before long the child is moved up the reading scheme without having any knowledge of reading at all, and this sometimes is not picked up for some time, and so has a detrimental effect on the child’s reading. Parents do not always have the knowledge to realise when their child is just reciting what they have heard, so foremost it is the responsibility of the teacher to ensure the children do have the strategies provided to them to allow them to read accurately, so therefore the Rose Review may help in preventing this from happening. Previous research into the teaching of reading and writing led to the findings that numerous children were not reaching the expected level 4 at age 11 in English, and the proportion stalled to 80%. It was said that the best primary schools in England teach children to read, however this could be argued when children are still starting Secondary School below National expectation. Research has found that children are taught to read when a school sets the foundations for a very rigorous and sequential approach to developing speaking and listening and teaching reading, writing and spelling through systematic phonics, and if schools focus on this objective, adopt a consistent approach and make every minute of every lesson count, then they can achieve high standards in reading (Ofsted, Report summary, reading by six, how the best schools do it, 2010). This obviously requires teachers to eliver a highly structured approach to teaching phonic knowledge and skills, which includes a fast pace, praise and reinforcement, perceptive responses, active participation by all children and evidence of progress, all of which personal teaching practice has witnessed daily (appendix 1). If teachers are going to prevent these statistics of failing children to read and write, then assessment needs to be top priority, as this enables pupils to be quickly identified if they are falli ng behind (Ofsted, Report summary, reading by six, how the best schools do it, 2010). The government’s white paper, the importance of teaching, in November 2010 stated its case for phonics. It said it would ensure all children have the chance to follow an enriching curriculum by getting them reading early, this means supporting the teaching of systematic synthetic phonics and introducing a simple reading check at age six to guarantee that children have mastered the basic skills of early reading and also ensure children are identified with learning difficulties, and this is now reflected in the new teacher standards, under the heading ‘Developing good subject and curriculum knowledge’. Teachers delivering early reading must now demonstrate a clear understanding of systematic synthetic phonics. It was also made clear that Ofsted would enhance its inspector’s expertise in assessing the teaching of reading, so that their judgements reflect appropriate expectations and recognise particular features of systematic synthetic phonics teaching. The reason being for this so that if reading and writing are not good at the end of year 2 and 6 then Inspectors have the sufficient knowledge to allow them to ask questions relating to the unsatisfactory progress children have made. The development of the new phonics screening test for six year olds means that inspectors are even more likely to encounter phonics. (Ofsted, Getting them reading early, 2011) The findings of the Rose Report has provided many discussions for schools, and have subsequently made schools review and improve their provisions, particularly the frequency and pace of their phonics sessions. Teachers have now begun to see the importance of teaching the phonemes and graphemes in a specific order, so are delivering the programmes through the correct structure, to enable the children to progress successfully. To allow this success to continue, it is important that all staff be allowed access to regular high quality training, which will be provided by the local authority. (Ofsted, Responding to the Rose Review: schools approaches to the systematic teaching of phonics, 2008). Another impact that the Rose Review has had on schools is the introduction of the year 1 phonics screening check, and this has been used in all mainstream schools in England since 2012, and the purpose of it is to identify pupils who need extra support and ensure that they receive help, children who do not reach the required standard in year 1 then retake the screening check in year 2, which inspectors will then follow up looking at data providing information about the impact of any interventions that the school has put in place and the speed in which children were able to catch up with their peers, the focus of the test is simply to ensure that children have mastered the basic skills of early reading. This obviously has put pressure on schools to make sure that the way they are delivering the systematic synthetic phonics is correct and that every member of staff responsible for it has been given sufficient training and guidance to enable them to achieve the results expected from the m, or be prepared to answer questions about why their pupils are underachieving. Schools which have already undertaken the screen check have already said that they found it helpful in identifying children who are struggling with phonic decoding, and need intervention and pinpointing particular aspects of phonics that numerous children are finding difficult. One area of the test which some schools had issues with was the inclusion of nonsense words, and through personal teaching practice it has been found that some higher ability children do struggle with the concept of nonsense words, because they understand it does not make sense, so refuse to sound it out, however these children must be taught to overcome this as it had been found that children need to have a strategy for working out words that they have not come across else once again you risk the chance that children are just remembering words on sight (Ofsted, Getting them reading early, 2011). Because of the screening check, teachers have to ensure that they make themselves very familiar with the relevant sections as only they are able to administer it, and it has to be administered correctly, and the materials have to be stored securely for the duration of the check week and until the last check has been administered, to ensure no child has an unfair advantage, once the check is complete it has to be reported to the local authority.. Research has been undertaken to address questions such as â€Å"does systematic phonics instruction help children learn to read more effectively than non-systematic phonics instruction or instruction teaching no phonics? †, and â€Å"are some types of phonics instruction more effective than others? †. It was concluded by the National Reading Panel that ‘specific systematic phonics programs are all significantly more effective than non-phonics programmes, however they do not appear to differ significantly from each other in their effectiveness although more evidence is needed to verify this. Rose wrote, ‘analytic phonics is good, but synthetic phonics is better’ (Wyse. D, 2008), for this statement to qualify then the amount of children leaving primary school at the age related level 4 should definitely start to improve and more so now since the introduction of the screening check, as this should prevent children slipping through the system. Since the Rose Report was introduced schools have emphasised that the impact of the systematic approach to teaching phonics had raised their expectations of how quickly and well children could learn to read and write, and subsequently schools have now been forced to look at other aspects of their practice, like the transition from the foundation stage to year 1, the use of tracking data, the grouping of children, and the teaching of writing (Ofsted, Responding to the Rose Review: schools approaches to the systematic teaching of phonics, 2008). It is clear from research that the majority of schools have welcomed the programmes clear structure and believe that it will assist planning and consistency. Evidence is showing that children are enjoying their phonics lessons, due to the fact that they can actually put letters and sounds together in a meaningful way, some schools have actually noticed an improvement in boys enjoyment at learning to read which could be a subsequent improvement in relation to current educational issues relating to the underachievement of boys in English, particularly writing. Personal teaching practice has shown that Read, Write Inc never gives a child a book that they cannot phonetically decode for themselves (as seen in appendix 1) so therefore children are never faced with the daunting worry that they are going to have to read something that they can’t, instead they are full of confidence and actually enjoy reading their books, which then in turn transmits into their writing. The Rose Review enforced a dramatic change in the content and method of teaching children to read. The National Literacy Strategy needed to change before even more children failed to meet the expected standard of Literacy, and were therefore being let down by professional teachers during the most important years of their life. Teaching and learning of reading are human processes, subject to the uncertainties, and unpredictability that comes with human kind. The ability to read is the key to educational achievement, without a basic foundation in literacy children cannot gain access to a rich and diverse curriculum. Poor literacy limits opportunities not only at school, but throughout life. By introducing systematic synthetic phonics throughout all the schools in England it can only be hoped that children are now receiving the delivery of Literacy at the expected level to enable them to become fluent independent readers with the capability to express themselves with words and writing. This way of teaching phonics is always going to come across some barriers, and of course there will be some children that cant process this level of education, but hopefully those children will be in the minority, and will quickly be identified through constant assessment and then through intervention will be able to have their misconceptions corrected and catch up with their peers. Bibliography Morris, J. (1984). Phonics 44 for initial literacy in English. Reading, 18. 1. Ofsted. (2008). Responding to the Rose Review: schools approaches to the systematic teaching of phonics. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from www. ofsted. gov. uk/resources/responding-rose-review-schools-approaches-systematic-teaching-of-phonics. Ofsted. (2010, November 14). Report summary, reading by six, how the best schools do it. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from www. ofsted. gov. uk/publications/100197. Ofsted. (2011). Getting them reading early. Retrieved february 12, 2013, from http://www. ofsted. gov. uk/resources/getting-them-reading-early. Styles. M, W. a. (2007). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading: the debate surrounding Englands Rose Report . Literacy, 35 42. Wyse, D. a. (2008). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading. British Educational Research journal, 34 (6), 691 710. Wyse. D, G. (2008). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading. British Educational research Journal,, 691 710. Appendix 1 An overview of one school’s approach to the teaching of systematic synthetic phonics St Thomas Primary School, Boston, Lincolnshire Read, Write Inc Read, write Inc is a rapid learn to read programme to enable children to read to learn for the rest of their lives. It was designed for children four years plus, for older children who need to catch up, and for children who are new to English. It works by teaching children 44 sounds and matching letters/letter groups, and teaches them to blend sounds to read words. Children read lots of specially written books, which only contain the phonemes which they have learnt, therefore a child is never presented with a book that they can’t actually read. Children are constantly praised throughout the teaching, and always work with a partner to allow them to be a teacher as well, and to learn to give praise back. This approach is relatively new to this school, and has been incorporated by all members of foundation stage and KS1 members of staff, through 2 days of Read, Write INC training. Phonic Lead observes and provides in house/1:1 training and coaching, or team teaching sessions. Some staff are required to have outside training as a top up, or support with their misconceptions. Children’s progress is tracked by assessing them every 6 weeks and then the phonics co-ordinator analyses the data to see if the children are making progress, and then the children are regrouped accordingly to what sounds they know, this prevents children working at the wrong level and having gaps in their knowledge, when this assessment takes place it also gives the Phonics lead the opportunity to identify any children that need intervention. Teachers have Phonic displays in KS1 which link sounds, and words that are continuously linked to all learning. Alphabet freezes to support recognition and formations. Teachers will have flash cards/ words in pocket/apron to show children throughout the day. In Reception and KS1 teachers encourage children to use phonics when reading and writing during carpet session, adult directed activities and independent work. Phonic Lead also delivers phonic training to parents at the beginning of the year, to support learning at home. EYFS lead ob serves children in preschools and

Friday, March 27, 2020

Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse Essay Example

Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse Essay Abstract This work attempts to examine a number of issues generated by the discussion on the communication skills of the mental health nurse. Nursing actions are planned to promote, maintain, and restore the clients well-being and health. Clients and nurses alike come to the communication with unique cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities that they use in their joint endeavor of enhancing the clients well-being. Mental health nurses are responsible for encouraging this interchange of ideas, values, and skills. In an effective helping communication there is a definite and guaranteed interchange between clients and nurses in all three dimensions. The communicative role of the nurse is, thus, an important one. We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Communication Skills of the Mental Health Nurse Communication is a life-long learning process for the nurse. Nurses make the intimate journey with the client and family from the miracle of birth to the mystery of death. Nurses build assertive communication for this journey. Nurses provide education that helps clients change life-long habits. Nurses communicate with people under stress: clients, family, and colleagues. Nurses deal with anger and depression, with dementia and psychosis, with joy and despair. Nurses serve as client advocates and as members of interdisciplinary teams who may have different ideas about priorities for care. Despite the complexity of technology and the multiple demands on a nurses time, it is the intimate moments of connection that can make all the difference in the quality of care and meaning for the client and the nurse. As nurses refine their communications skills and build their confidence, they can move from novice to expert. Nurses honor the differences in clients with humility and learn and grow i n their ability to trust their intuition — the sacred moment of connection when we ac- knowledge the divine presence in each of us, the essence of each person. Communication involves the reciprocal process of sending and receiving messages between two or more people. This work will focus on the communication skills of the mental health nurse. Communication can either facilitate the development of a therapeutic relationship or create barriers (Burleson 2003). In general, there are two parts to face-to-face communication: the verbal expression of the senders thoughts and feelings, and the nonverbal expression. Verbally, cognitive and affective messages are sent through words, voice inflection, and rate of speech; nonverbally, messages are conveyed by eye movements, facial expressions, and body language. Senders determine what message they want to transmit to the receiver and encode their thoughts and feelings into words and gestures. Senders messages are transmitted to the receiver through sound, sight, touch, and occasionally, through smell and taste. Receivers of the messages have to decode the verbal and nonverbal transmission to make sense of the thoughts and feelings communicated by senders. After decoding the senders words, speech patterns, and facial and body movements, the receivers encode return messages, either ve rbally, through words, or nonverbally, through gestures.   Figure 1 illustrates this reciprocal nature of the communication process. At any point in an interpersonal communication we send and receive verbal and nonverbal messages about thoughts and feelings. The assertive nurse appears confident and comfortable. Assertive behavior is contrasted with nonassertive or passive behavior, in which individuals disregard their own needs and rights, and aggressive behavior, in which individuals disregard the needs and rights of others (Figure 2). The communication between mental health nurse and clients typology is divided into two broad categories: client–nurse communications and person-in-situation, or environmental, interventions. There are six intervention methods within the client–worker communications category: 1. Sustainment. Communications designed to convey interest, understanding, confidence, and reassurance constitute the bulk of sustainment. Frequently, these are nonverbal cues, such as attentive posture, minimal prompts (repeating a word the client has used ina questioning manner), nods, and smiles. Sparingly used supportive statements such as â€Å"You seem to be coping well with an enormous amount of pressure† or â€Å"It is to be expected that this would be difficult to deal with† reflect a level of understanding of the clients situation and sustain the communication. 2. Direct influence. This communication type is really a continuum of interventions that range from tentative suggestion through directive advice giving. Giving direct advice is seldom appropriate to the mental health nurse. Even so, suggestions such as â€Å"I wonder whether it might make sense to consider X strategy for handling this problem† or â€Å"Have you thought about trying to do X in that situation?† fall within the range of mental health nurse work interventions in health care settings. 3. Exploration, description, and ventilation. These communications are designed to promote client disclosures through questions and other techniques. Although using minimal prompts and nodding are also involved in sustainment, the goal differs when they are used in this context. The exploration of clients problems, motivations, and strengths, their descriptions of interactions and situations, and their opportunity to allow open expression of emotions are all goals of this type of intervention. 4. Person–situation reflection. Reflection of client communications is often a main goal of intervention. Burleson (2003) divides the types of reflection into six further categories: reflections of others (clients own health or other aspects of the exterior world); client behavior (including its effects on others or on self); the nature of clients behavior, thoughts, and feelings; the causes and provocations of behavior; self-image, values, and principles from an evaluative stance; and feelings about the nurse or the client–nurse relationship. 5. Pattern–dynamic reflection. Communication for the purpose of reflecting back general patterns in the clients behavior and the motivations behind the behavior are given a separate category. Much interpretive and analytic work is done with this type of communication. 6. Developmental reflection. Like pattern–dynamic reflection, this type of communication identifies patterns in client motivation and behavior; however, the focus is on historical developmental patterns. Framing reflections in terms of prior client development is a hallmark of this type of interaction. Acceptance, and its associated value of being non-judgmental, is extensively examined in communication skills. It involves ‘respect and concern’ and ‘an uncompromising belief in the innate worth of the individual human being’ (Atkinson 2002). It is essential not simply that the worker should have these beliefs, but that the client actually experiences himself being respected by the worker.   We do not display unconditional positive regard: there is an expectation by the worker that change will occur. Acceptance, however, requires humility. Indeed, it may go beyond simple refusal to judge, but actively to seek to understand can be a prerequisite to acceptance. A final element is the commitment implied by acceptance: that although the client may behave in ways disapproved of, the relationship will continue as far as the nurse is concerned. Atkinson (2002) stresses consciously attempting to suspend personal value judgments, opinions, attitudes and feelings ab out the issues raised, and concentrate on accepting the client’s values, feelings and opinions (p. 174). The nurse should accept the patient as he or she is, and in addition to accepting him/her as he is, the nurse should treat the patient as an emotionally able stranger and relate to him/her as such until evidence shows otherwise. Nurses must remain true to their values while accepting the patient’s right to follow his/her conscience, they must display tolerance of themselves and others and must be non-judgmental so the patient feels free to express his/her real feelings. To be accepting is, at base, to be friendly. Empathy, listening and individualizing are a closely related cluster of qualities. Empathy is perhaps the most widely discussed element in nursing communication skills. Atkinson (2002) suggests it is imaginatively understanding others: ‘the power to feel imaginatively the experience of the other person†¦to â€Å"get on the same wavelength† as them’. The nurses attempt to ‘put themselves in another’s shoes’. However, this should not overwhelm them. Burleson (2003) calls it controlled emotional involvement. Burleson identifies a continual movement between merging with the client and regaining an objective stance. We recognize that we are a separate person, and this is necessary to maintain a sense of proportion. There is a clear intuitive dimension. Jordan (1979, p. 20) considers ‘it requires the exercise of all her [the worker’s] intuitive and imaginative capacities’ to go beyond the detail of the message. It also has a more cognitive element. It involves ‘building up our knowledge’ (Atkinson 2002) and methods of reasoning†¦to make an objective analysis†¦ [and] the theoretical knowledge [to obtain]†¦a mental representation of the other (Burleson Planalp 2000). Listening is a closely associated practice element. Indeed, it would appear a prerequisite to any degree of accurate empathy. Although non-verbal cues may be used, the ability to listen significantly facilitates understanding of the client and the meaning for him of his circumstances. Listening, however, is not a passive activity. Atkinson (2002) emphasizes nurse involvement, and the active seeking for ‘information’: ‘a listener who is able to respond actively and appropriately to the messages he receives’. Riley (2000) considers likewise it is not a passive ‘hearing’. It is an active search for the meaning in and an active understanding of, the client’s communication. (p. 168) It is this active striving for meaning which links it to empathy, the attempt to understand. It is ‘listen and know what I mean’ (Worden 2003). Listening, though, has a further positive element: actually encouraging the client to express himself. It involves listening hard, not only to the words which the client is using, but also the overtones of what he is saying together with encouraging the client to formulate and express his worries. Individualization is also closely associated with empathy: for to empathize is to do so with an individual who has unique qualities. Individualization is the recognition and understanding of each client’s unique qualities based on the right to be treated not just as a human being, but as this human being with his personal differences. Individualization possesses two central characteristics: like others it involves recognition of uniqueness, but also one of value a valuation of an individual’s potential accomplishments. Barrett (2003) identifies three ways in which it occurs in practice: in the present through the current nurse-client relationship; in description of the past through which the client presents their biography; and discussing future actions contributing to his/her personal identity. Overall treatment should be geared to individual needs. Above all, individualization means being free from projecting stereotypes on to people. Communication skills of mental health nursing also discuss empathy. It is the ability to perceive accurately the feelings of another person and to communicate this understanding to him. It is the capacity for participating in a vicarious experience of another’s feelings, volitions or ideas. Atkinson (2002) considers it to be an absolutely essential element of interpersonal communication. Nurse authors recognize it goes beyond simply what another person says: it is the ability to perceive accurately the internal frame of reference of the other and involves the latent meaning of what has been said. It is necessary, though, to retain some separateness: it is the quality of objectivity which distinguishes empathy from sympathy. Overall seeing things through the other person’s eyes involves, first, responding to the words and reflecting them, and second, picking out the unspoken feelings behind what is said. A further cluster of related concepts are authenticity, genuineness and openness. Authenticity requires the nurse be real and human in the communication. It implies spontaneity, the willingness to share one’s own feelings and reactions. Genuineness on the other hand means that there is a striving towards congruence between the nurses’ feelings and their behavior. Authenticity, then, means retaining one’s essential ‘humanness’, while genuineness is significant in the generation of authenticity: the worker openly providing information requested, and when appropriate initiates information sharing. This involves being honest about the reality of the nurse’s position: that the nurse’s powers and limitations are stated clearly when appropriate. Authenticity and openness, therefore, involve being authentic as a professional and not just a private person. Congruence means that nurses bring honest matches the underlying value system and essentia l self as a professional person. At a personal level it motivates a warm and nurturing heart, on objective, open and disciplined mind (heart and head). It is the synthesis of personal and professional which is significant: without this there is a loss of spontaneity with the worker appearing as a guarded professional. How does the nurse demonstrate genuineness? The nurse should give time, be sincere and be consistent in the attitudes and behavior shown during the communication. However sincerity does not involve cushioning the patient inappropriately from reality. This work has examined issues relating to communication (or its likely effect) and client involvement in the process of intervention. The role of the mental health nurse in health communication bears both similarities and dissimilarities to that of the physician. The nurse is in a pivotal position on the patient care team. Often nurses claim that patients should be treated as people rather than cases, they do not communicate as they profess they should nor as they think they do. In summary, this work highlights the importance of practice and preparation in the development of mental health nurses communication skills. Changing and improving the way health care providers interact with patients is complicated for several reasons. First, many nurses have developed a style of communicating that they perceive to be effective and easy to use, especially if they have been practicing for a number of years. To diversify their communicative repertoire, nurses must believe in the need for change , learn new responses (e.g., open-ended questions, attentive listening), and identify and refrain from problematic behaviors. Because of these factors, it is unlikely that a single, brief intervention will lead to significant improvement in a health care providers communicative skills. Research to date indicates that the most successful communication skill interventions will be those that are intensive and employ diverse pedagogical techniques including expert and patient feedback, role playing, modeling, practice, group discussion, and watching ones performance on videotape. References Atkinson, Mary. (2002). Mental Health Handbook for Schools. Routledge/Falmer: London. Barrett, Sheila. (2003). Communication, Relationships and Care: A Reader. Routledge: New York. Burleson, B. R., Planalp, S. (2000). â€Å"Producing emotion(al) messages.† Communication Theory, 10. Burleson, Brant R. (2003). Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ. Riley, Julia Balzer. (2000). Communication in Nursing. Mosby: St. Louis, MO. Worden, J. William. (2003). Grief Counselling and Grief Therapy: A Handbook for the Mental Health Practitioner. Brunner-Routledge: Hove, England. Figure 1  Ã‚   The Human Communication Process Figure 2 Assertive and Nonassertive Style of Communication Characteristics Assertive Nonassertive Aggressive Attitude toward self and others Im OK Youre OK Im not OK Youre not OK Im not OK Youre not OK Decision making Makes own decision Lets others choose for him or her Chooses for others Behavior in problem situations Direct, fair confrontation Flees, gives in Outright, assaultive Verbal behaviors Clear, direct statement of wants; objective words; honest statement of feelings Apologetic words; hedging; rambling; failing to say what is meant Loaded words; accusations; superior, haughty words; labeling of other person Nonverbal behaviors Confident, congruent messages Actions instead of words (not saying what is felt); incongruence between words and behaviors Air of superiority; flip- pant, sarcastic style Voice Firm, warm, confident Weak, distant, soft, wavering Tense, shrill, loud, cold, demanding, authoritarian, coldly silent Eyes Warm, in contact, frank Averted, downcast, teary, pleading Expressionless, cold, narrowed, staring Stance Relaxed Stooped; excessive lean- ing for support Hands on hips; feet apart Hands Gestures at appropriate times Fidgety, clammy Fists pounding or clenched Pattern of relating Puts himself or herself up without putting others down Puts himself or herself down Puts himself or herself up by putting others down Response of others Mutual respect Disrespect, guilt, anger, frustration Hurt, defensiveness, humiliation Consequences of style I win, you win; strives for win-win or no lose solutions I lose, you lose; only succeeds by luck or charity of others I win, you lose; beats out others at any cost STUDENT NAME_________________ DATE___________________________ GRADING GRID / CRITERIA: FORMAL APA PAPER TOPIC SELECTION: (15%)_____  § Relevant to professional nursing  § Timely/current  § Appropriate for length and course STRUCTURE: (35%)_____  § Correct use of grammar and spelling  § Expression of ideas well organized, clear, and concise  § Appropriate length of paper and paragraphs  § Appropriate use of tables, graphs, etc.  § Correct use of APA editorial format CONTENT: (35%)_____  § Information generates interest  § Illustrations and examples used as needed  § Information is accurate  § Resources/references underpin structure of the paper and salient points  § Implications for nursing practice or research identified REFERENCES: (15%)_____  § Less than 4 years, unless nursing or other theory or supporting reference  § Scientific nursing, medical, or allied health journal or other scholarly Publication

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Rise of the American Political Parties essays

The Rise of the American Political Parties essays Even after the Constitution was drafted, there remained many ambiguous interpretations by the citizens along with politicians of America. The Anti-Federalists, like Thomas Jefferson and Samuel Adams, had a very strict following of the Constitution. However, the Federalists, such as George Washington and James Madison, believed that the Constitution was a set of guidelines rather than a strict collection of laws. These different ideas, along with the election of 1796, helped to create the division of ideas which resulted in the forming of the political parties. The Federalists, who were led by Alexander Hamilton, believed mainly in a strong central government. Hamilton believed that the common populace could not be trusted and that they would become greedy. He also thought that a strong federal government should have most of the authority because the states would become too divided if they were entrusted with individual powers. The goal of the Federalists was to unite the country and to develop a self sufficient economy based on industry as well as agriculture. Another idea that Hamilton and the Federalists shared was to create a financial policy in which the country would establish a system of credit. Furthermore, a national bank would be established along with a countrywide currency to rid the obstacles that threatened the development of industry in the United States. The Anti-Federalists, in contrast, believed in state powers. They feared that the new national government would take too much power away from the states and would not protect the rights of the individual citizens. Most of the federalists were small farmers and debtors, but some were wealthier people. Some Revolutionary heroes, such as George Mason, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, and Patrick Henry, were also firm anti-federalists. Among them, the most famous was probably Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson believed in state powers, like most anti-federalists, and believed ve...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Heidegger Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Heidegger - Assignment Example On the other hand, practical engagement is more credible since it engages more fundamental modes of behavior and actual or practical engagement with the environment. Unlike theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge entails, learning by interacting the actual presence of the object being studied. There is disparity between mental or logical perception of the object which theoretical knowledge relies on and interaction with the actual presence of the object, which practical knowhow relies on. An example of the postulation above is underscored by the practical approach that teachers adopt in classroom situations. Teaching children theoretical knowledge on transpiration will prove self-defeatist in the long run since children are likely to forget about the same concept with time. To this extent, it is most beneficial [to the teacher and pupils] to learn about transpiration in leaves practically, in the fields. The teacher can have students tie leaves with transparent polythene paper bags for future inspection. It is after this engagement and after learners have found water droplets inside the transparent polythene bags that wrap the leaves that transpiration will be etched into the minds of the entire classroom. In this case, it is understood that Heidegger sees equipment as an object, an avenue or a means to an end. This is definition captures the aforementioned provision where a simple experiment is done by having learners tie leaves with a transparent polythene bag to help students appreciate the essence and reality of transpiration in leaves. In this case, even the simple experiment serves as equipment because it is â€Å"†¦essentially something [that is done] in-order-to [help the learners acquire practical knowledge on something- transpiration in leaves].† According to Bertocci, by using the phrase assignment, Heidegger intended to mean, a process [X] which uses a